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A-Z Dictionary of Export, Trade and Shipping Terms



See "Documents Against Acceptance."
See "Documents Against Payment."
Damage Report
Form on which physical damage is recorded (e.g. containers).
Damaged Cargo Report
Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
Dangerous Goods
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk,peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
Dangerous Goods Declaration
Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations,describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latterhave been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventionsor regulations.
Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible partydeclares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container incompliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.
A re-interpretable representation of information in a formalised manner suitable forcommunication, interpretation or processing.
Data Carrier
Medium designed to carry records of data entries.
Data Plate
A metal identification plate affixed to a container, which displays among others the gross andtare weights and external dimensions.
Delivered at Frontier
The seller's obligations are fulfilled when the goods have arrived at the frontier-but before "the customs border" of the country named in the sales contract.
Delivered Duty Paid
While the term "Ex Works" signifies the seller's minimum obligation, the term "Delivered Duty Paid," when followed by words naming the buyer's premises denotes the other extreme-the seller's maximum obligation and may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.
Delivered Duty Unpaid
The seller must deliver the goods to the named destination and is responsible for all costs involved in transportation, including exportation. The buyer handles the import formalities.
D.E.Q. Delivered Ex Quay—indicates that the seller must deliver the goods onto the quay (dock or wharf), having cleared the goods for import and paid all taxes, duties, etc. applicable to that clearance. 
Delivery Point
See "Specific Delivery Point."
Excess time taken for loading or unloading a vessel as a result of acts of a shipper. Charges are assessed by the shipping company.
Slots paid for but not used.
The difference between the actual and calculated ship's draft.
Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spareparts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under thecircumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.
Decision Support System
Abbreviation: DSS
An interactive computer-based system which generates a number of alternatives to solve anunstructured problem. These alternatives are being interpreted by the manager (decision-maker), whereafter he decides which alternative is to be used to solve the problem.
Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel or an aircraft, serving as a floor and structuralsupport, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel or aircraft.
Declaration of Origin
Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportationby the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on thecommercial invoice or any document relating to goods.
Declared Value for Carriage
The value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determiningcharges or of establishing the limit of the carrier's liability for loss, damage or delay. It is alsothe basis for possible applicable valuation charges (air cargo).
Decoupling Inventory
A stock retained to make the independent control of two successive operations possible.
Decoupling Point
The point in the supply chain which provides a buffer between differing input and outputrates.
Dedicated Service
  1. A service specially designed for the use by one or more particular customers.
  2. A service (e.g. feeder) totally under control of the P&O Nedlloyd Line
Deep Tank
Tank fitted and equipped for the carriage of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and coconut oil) andother liquids in bulk. By means of oil-tight bulkheads and/or decks it is possible to carrydifferent kinds of liquid in adjacent tanks. Deep tanks may be equipped with heating facilitiesin order to carry and discharge oil at the required temperature (P&O Nedlloyd).
Default Charge
A (standard) charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location.

In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has beenset.

Splitting up shipments into small consignments.
Delay in Transit (DIT)
Delay of shipment at the customer¿s request.
Delivered At Frontier (...named place)
Abbreviation: DAF
Delivered Duty Paid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDP
Delivered Duty Unpaid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDU
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Delivered Ex Quay (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DEQ
Delivered Ex Ship (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DES
Delivering Carrier
The carrier who delivers the consignment to the consignee or his agent (air cargo).
The process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.
Delivery Instruction
Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of thedelivery of goods ordered.
Delivery Note
A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).
Delivery Order
  1. A carrier¿s delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a B/L (aftersurrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a B/L.
  2. The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than theconsignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
Delivery Party
The party to which goods are to be delivered.
Delivery Reliability
The proportion of total delivery occasions in which the time, place, quality and quantity ofproducts delivered accords with the order.
Delivery Schedule
The required and/or agreed time of delivery of goods or services purchased for a futureperiod.
Delivery Service
The carriage of inbound consignments from the airport of destination to the address of theconsignee or his designated agent or to the custody of the appropriate custom departmentagency when required (air cargo).
Delivery Time
The time between order and delivery.
The quantity of goods required by the market to be delivered in a particular period or at aspecific date.
Demise Charter
A contract whereby the shipowner leases his vessel to the charterer for a period of timeduring which the whole use and management of the vessel passes to the charterer, whichinvolves that the charterer is to pay all expenses for the operation and maintenance of thevessel. Officers and crew will become servants of the charterer.

A demise charter whereby the charterer has the right to place his own master and crew onboard of the vessel is also called 'bareboat charter'.

  1. A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices(ULD's) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment.
  2. Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate andallowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal.
Density of Commodity
The mass of a commodity to its volume.
Dependent Demand
A demand directly related to or derived from the demand for other items or end products.Dependent demands are therefore calculated, and need not and should not be forecast.
The place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and receivedfrom or delivered to the container operators or merchants.
Depot Location
The geographical place where one or more P&O Nedlloyd depots are situated.
Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo,consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.
The process of sending goods.
Despatch Advice
Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods aresent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Despatch Days
The days gained if the free time included in the rate and allowed for the use of certainequipment is not fully used.
Despatch Note (for post parcels)
Document which, according to the agreement concerning postal parcels, is to accompanypost parcels.
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  1. Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound.
  2. The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo).
Det Norske Veritas
Norwegian classification society.
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
Detention Charge
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in thepertinent inland rules and conditions.
The downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage to packing or other externalinfluences.
Deviation from a Route
A divergence from the agreed or customary route.
See "Domestic International Sales Corporation."
Discount (Financial)
A deduction from the face value of commercial paper such as bills of exchange, in consideration of receipt of cash by the seller before maturity date.
Discrepancy-Letter of Credit: When documents presented do not conform to the terms of the letter of credit, it is referred to as a "discrepancy."
A firm that sells directly for a manufacturer, usually on an exclusive basis for a specified territory, and which maintains an inventory on hand.
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.
Direct Delivery
  1. The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if athird party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer.
  2. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose ofimmediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequatestorage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).
Direct Interchange
Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).
Direct Product Profitability
Abbreviation: DPP
System employed mainly within the retail sector for calculating the profit from any givenproduct in any given position within the supply chain, requiring transparency andmanagement of all logistic costs.
Direct Route
The shortest operated route between two points.
Sums paid out by a ship's agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.
  1. The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
  2. The landing of cargo.
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
Discrete Code
A bar code in which the spaces between characters (inter character gaps) are not part of thecode as each character begins and ends with a bar. The spaces can therefore vary in width,specified tolerances.

An example is Code 39.

The weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vesselon her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores etc.
Disposable Pallet
Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.
Disposal Chain
A sequence of events in a goods-flow which gets rid of a specific good. This may includeremoval, recycling, waste dumping etc.
Disposal of Goods
The act of getting rid of goods.
All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and or full containers.
The set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity,place and time for the customer.
Distribution Centre
A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
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Distribution Channel
The route by which a company distributes goods.
Distribution Requirements Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-I
The function of determining the need to replenish stock at branch warehouses.
Distribution Resource Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-II
The set of concepts, procedures and techniques, being an extension of DRP-I, for theeffective planning and control of the physical distribution.
A vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board of an aircraft.
Dock Receipt
A receipt issued by an ocean carrier or its agent, acknowledging that a shipment has been delivered and received at the dock or warehouse of the carrier.
Documentary Credit
See "Letter of Credit (Commercial)."
Documentary Draft
A draft to which documents are attached.
See "Shipping Documents."
Documents Against Acceptance (D/A)
A type of payment for goods in which the documents transferring title to the goods are not given to the buyer until he has accepted the draft issued against him.
Documents Against Payment (D/P)
A type of payment for goods in which the documents transferring title to the goods are not given to the buyer until he has paid the value of a draft issued against him.
Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)
An export sales corporation set up by a United States company under U.S. Government authorization to promote exports from the United States by giving the exporter economic advantages not available outside such authorization.
Dock Bumpers
Cushioning devices (rubber, plastic, wood, etc.) mounted at the extreme rear of a chassis ortrailer to take the impact when it backs into a loading dock or platform (road cargo).
Dock Receipt
Document issued by P&O Nedlloyd acknowledging that goods are received for shipment.
Anything printed, written, relied upon to record or prove something.
Document Holder
Usually fastened to the door on the front of a container. May contain e.g. a certificate ofapproval of the container.
Domestic Carriage
Carriage whereby the place of departure and the place of destination are situated within onecountry (air cargo).
Domestic Rate
Rate applicable within a country, and in most cases subject to special conditions other thanthose of IATA (air cargo).
Door Lock Bars
Door to Door Transport
Double Banking
Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.
Double Stack Train
A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two-high.
Double bottom
Construction of the bottom of a ship whereby a generally watertight space is formed betweenthe shell and an inner bottom placed at a sufficient height above the baseline to allow accessand to reduce risks due to grounding or colliding.
Double-deck Pallet
Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.
Down Time
The period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failureor maintenance.
The same as a "bill of exchange." A written order for a certain sum of money, to be transferred on a certain date from the person who owes the money or agrees to make the payment (the drawee) to the creditor to whom the money is owed (the drawer of the draft). See "Date Draft," "Documentary Draft," "Sight Draft," "Time Draft."
Drawback (Import)
The repayment, up to 99%, of customs duties paid on merchandise which later is exported, as part of a finished product, is known as a drawback. It refers also to a refund of a domestic tax which has been paid, upon exportation of imported merchandise.
One on whom a draft is drawn, and who owes the stated amount. See "Draft."
One who "draws" a draft, and receives payment. See "Draft."
The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of thekeel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft arewelded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods,when those goods are exported again.
  1. The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray).
  2. Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.
Drilling Rig
A structure, which drills wells in the bottom in order to search for oil.
Drop off Charge
Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or poolcontainer into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling andstorage charges with surcharges.
Dry Bulk Container
Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for thecarriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging.

Containers of this type have type codes 80 and 81.

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Dry Cargo Container
P&O Nedlloyd container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
The tax imposed by a government on merchandise imported from another country.
Duty Free Zone
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaitingfurther transport or manufacturing.

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