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A-Z Dictionary of Export, Trade and Shipping Terms



See Competent Authority Approval
See Cash Against Documents
See Currency Adjustment Factor
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations.
  1. Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country.
  2. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle isregistered road-cargo).
  3. The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by theOwner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container.
The visit of a vessel to a port.
Call Sign
A code published by the International Telecommunication Union in its annual List of Ships'Stations to be used for the information interchange between vessels, port authorities andother relevant participants in international trade.

Note: The code structure is based on a three digit designation series assigned by the ITUand a one digit assigned by the country of registration. (PDHP =P&O Nedlloyd Rotterdam)

Slightly arched form of container-floors to strengthen the construction.
  1. The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity.
  2. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/orloaded into a means of transport at a particular time.
Capacity Control
Process of registering and steering of capacity.
Mechanical device with drum having a vertical spindle used to tighten or slacken mooringropes or to haul an anchor.
  1. Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L.
  2. Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on aship, other than mail, ship's stores, ship's spare parts, ship's equipment, stowagematerial, crew's effects and passengers' accompanied baggage (IMO).
  3. Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied ormishandled baggage Also referred to as 'goods' (ICAO).
Cargo Assembly
The separate reception of parcels or packages and the holding of them for later despatch asone consignment (air cargo).
Cargo Disassembly
The separation of one or more of the component parts of a consignment (from other parts ofsuch consignment) for any purpose other than that of presenting such part or parts tocustoms authorities at the specific request of such authorities (air cargo).
Cargo Handling
All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.
Cargo Restriction Code
A code indicating that the use of a certain container is restricted to particular cargo.
Cargo Tracer
A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is eithermissing or over-landed.
Cargo Unit
A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof whichbelongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.
The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
Carriage Paid To (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CPT
See Inco Terms
Carriage and Insurance Paid To (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CIP
See Inco Terms
The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.
Carrier Haulage
The inland transport service, which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms andconditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.
Carriers Bill of Lading Ports
Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Ladingand which is not the port physically called at by Carriers' ocean vessels.

Note: Under normal circumstances in the B/L only ports should be mentioned which areactually called at.

Carriers' Lien
When the shipper ships goods 'collect', the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods,which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the chargesdue.
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Carrying Temperature
Required cargo temperature during transport and storage.
See also: Setting/Air Delivery Temperature
See Haulage
Cash Against Documents
Abbreviation: CAD
Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of thedocuments, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
Cash On Delivery
Abbreviation: COD
Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits theamount to the shipper (air cargo).
Caveat Emptor
Let the buyer beware, purchaser must ascertain the condition of the goods to be purchasedprior to the purchase.
The formation of partial vacuum bubbles on submerged surfaces caused by low pressurearising from a hydrodynamic flow as a result of mechanical force, usually associated with theuse of propellers. The collapse of the bubbles causes surface damage and pits.
Location on board of a container vessel where one container can be stowed.
Cell Position
The location of a cell on board of a container vessel identified by a code for successively thebay, the row and the tier, indicating the position of a container on that vessel.
Steel bars and rails used to steer containers during loading and discharging whilst sliding inthe ship.
Cellular Vessel
A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.
Central Warehouse
A warehouse which performs central functions for a number of warehouses.
Centre of Gravity
Point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that ifsupported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.
A document by which a fact is formally or officially attested and in which specialrequirements and conditions can be stated.
Certificate of Analysis
A document, often required by an importer or governmental authorities, attesting to thequality or purity of commodities. The origin of the certification may be a chemist or any otherauthorised body such as an inspection firm retained by the exporter or importer. In somecases the document may be drawn up by the manufacturer certifying that the merchandiseshipped has been tested in his facility and found conform to the specifications.
Certificate of Classification
A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel isregistered.
Certificate of Delivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon delivery for a charter including ballast,available bunkers and fresh water.
Certificate of Free Sale
A certificate, required by some countries as evidence that the goods are normally sold on theopen market and approved by the regulatory authorities in the country of origin.
Certificate of Inspection
A document in which certification is made as to the good condition of the merchandise immediately prior to shipment. The buyer usually designates the inspecting organization, usually an independent inspection firm or government body.
Certificate of Manufacture
A statement by a producer, sometimes notarized, which certifies that manufacture has been completed and that the goods are at the disposal of the buyer.
Certificate of Origin
A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used bycustoms in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programmes or in connection withregulating imports from specific sources.
Certificate of Redelivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon redelivery from a charter includingballast, available bunkers and fresh water.
Certification Authority (Key Management)
The certification authority is the central party of a key management system. It providescertificates to the users so that ¿trust¿ can be established between different users based onthe ¿trust¿ between the Registration Authority and users. These certificates are furthermoremade available in one or more directories which can be accessed by all users.
This term formerly known as CNF (C&F) defines two distinct and separate responsibilities-one is dealing with the actual cost of merchandise "C" and the other "F" refers to the freight charges to a predetermined destination point. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to get goods from their door to the port of destination. "Delivery" is accomplished at this time. It is the buyer's responsibility to cover insurance from the port of origin or port of shipment to buyer's door. Given that the shipper is responsible for transportation, the shipper also chooses the forwarder.
Chain Conveyor
A conveyor consisting of two or more strands of chain running in parallel tracks with theloads carried directly on the chains.
Compartment at the forward part of the ship designed for the storage of the anchor chain.
Chamber of Commerce
An association of businessmen whose purpose is to promote commercial and industrial interests in the community.
An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, oran amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage ofgoods.
Charge Type
A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of commonservices rendered to customers.
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Charter Contract
See Charter Party
Charter Party
  1. A contract in which the shipowner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at thedisposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives afreight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire ispaid.
  2. synonym: Charter Contract.
The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft andthus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.
  1. A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance
  2. The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system,wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body.
Cost, Insurance, and Freight. A pricing term under which the seller pays all expenses involved in the placing of merchandise on board a carrier and in addition prepays the freight and insures the goods to an agreed destination.
A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based onsome likeness or some common traits.
Classification Society
An Organisation, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being toset and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and theirsafety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction ofP&O Nedlloyd containers.
Clean Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order andcondition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of theB/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goodsor packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).
Clean on Board
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods isclean.

Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.

Clearance Terminal
Terminal where Customs facilities for the clearance of goods are available.
Cleared Without Examination
Abbreviation: CWE
Cleared by customs without inspection.
A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g.cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through anagent.
Clip on Unit
Abbreviation: COU
Detachable aggregate for a temperature controlled container (Conair).
Closed Ventilated Container
A container of a closed type, similar to a general purpose container, but specially designedfor carriage of cargo where ventilation, either natural or mechanical (forced), is necessary.
The procedure involved in a bank's collecting money for a seller against a draft drawn on a buyer abroad, usually through a correspondent bank.
Collection Papers
The documents submitted, usually with a draft or against a letter of credit, for payment of an export shipment.
The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination asthe cargo loaded earlier.
Commercial Attaché
The commercial expert on the diplomatic staff of his country's embassy or large consulate in a foreign country.
Commercial Invoice
A trade invoice.
Commission Agent
See "Foreign Sales Representative."
Commission Representative
See "Foreign Sales Representative."
The long-term relationship between e.g. a supplier or a carrier and a customer, on the basisof mutual confidence.
Conference Line
A member of a steamship conference. See "Steamship Conference."
See Co-makership
Structure around the hatch or door opening of a ship intended to provide seating for thecover, to stiffen the deck or plates and to prevent the ingress of water.
A relative small ship plying between coastal ports.
A character string that represents a member set of values.
Code List
The complete set of code values for a data item.
An empty space on board of a vessel between two bulkheads or two decks separating oiltanks from each other and/or the engine room or other compartments.
Collapsible Container
Container which can be easily folded, disassembled and reassembled.
Combination Charge
An amount which is obtained by combining two or more charges.
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Combination Chassis
A chassis which can carry either one forty foot or thirty foot container or a combination ofshorter containers e.g. 2 x 20 foot.
Combined Transport
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inlandwaterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.
Combined Transport Bill of Lading
See Bill of Lading R302
Combined Transport Document
Abbreviation: CTD
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/orprocurement of performance of combined transport of goods.

Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as aprincipal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.

Combined Transport Operator
Abbreviation: CTO
A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
Commercial Invoice
A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.
Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonised system.
Commodity Box Rate
A rate classified by commodity and quoted per container.
Commodity Code
Code used in the Harmonised System for the classification of goods, which are mostcommonly produced and traded.
Commodity Item Number
Specific description number required in air transport to indicate that a specific freight rateapplies.
Common Access Reference
A key to relate all subsequent transfers of data to the same business case or file.
Compagneurs Nationales des Conteneurs
Abbreviation: CNC affiliate of the French National Railways for Container traffic.
Instrument used for showing the direction of north and the relative heading of the shipcompared with this direction.
Competent Authority Approval
Abbreviation: CAA
A competent authority means any national regulatory body or authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with IMO code.
A uniquely identifiable product that is considered indivisible for a particular planning orcontrol purpose, and/or which cannot be decomposed without destroying it.

Note: A component for one organisational group may be the final assembly of another group(e.g. electric motor).

A local advisor or agent employed by a foreign party or company who acts as anintermediary in transactions with local inhabitants.
Computer Virus
A program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolvedcopy of itself.
Conair Container
Thermal container served by an external cooling system (e.g. a vessel's cooling system or aClip On Unit), which regulates the temperature of the cargo.

Note: Conair is a brand name.

  1. Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion ofsomething else.
  2. Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately.
Conditions of Carriage
The general terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage (aircargo).
Conditions of Contract
Terms and conditions shown on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
Devices for facilitating the loading, positioning and lashing of containers. The cones insertinto the bottom castings of the container.
Confirmed Letter of Credit
Issued by a bank abroad whose validity and terms are confirmed to the beneficiary in the United States by a U.S. bank.
The person, firm, or representative to whom a seller or shipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of the necessary documents, is recognized as the owner of the merchandise for the purpose of the payment of customs duties. This term is also used as applying to one to whom goods are shipped, usually at the shipper's risk, when an outright sale has not been made. See "Consignment."
A term pertaining to merchandise shipped to a consignee abroad when an actual purchase has not been made, under an agreement by which the consignee is obligated to sell the goods for the account of the consignor, and to remit proceeds as goods are sold.
A government official residing in a foreign country who is charged with the representation of the interests of his country and its nationals.
Consular Invoice
A detailed statement regarding the character of goods shipped, duly certified by the consul of the importing country at the port of shipment.

Contingency Insurance Insurance taken out by a shipper supplementary to insurance taken out by the consignee abroad; especially to cover shipments made on a "C. & F." basis.

Visa: A signature of formal approval on a document. Obtained from Consulates.

See Liner conference
Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge areobliged to wait for a vacant berth.
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Connecting Carrier
A carrier to whose services the cargo is to be transferred for onward connecting transport (aircargo).
Connecting Road Haulage
See Drayage
General agreement, characterised by the absence of sustained opposition to substantialissues by any important part of concerned interests and by a process that involves seeking totake into account the views of all parties concerned and to reconcile any conflictingarguments. Consensus needs not to imply unanimity.
The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo orcontainers are to be received.
A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor toone consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one singletransport document.
Consignment Instructions
Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder,carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods andassociated activities. The following functions can be covered:
  • Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage).
  • Customs formalities.
  • Distribution of documents.
  • Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations).
  • Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required).
    Consignment Note
    A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains detailsof the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrieras proof of receipt.
    Consignment Stock
    The stock of goods with an external party (customer) which is still the property of thesupplier. Payment for these goods is made to the supplier at the moment when they are sold(used) by this party.
    See Shipper
    To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.
    Consolidated Container
    Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for deliveryto one or more consignees.
    The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment forcarriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.
    Consolidation Point
    Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.
    A firm or company which consolidates cargo.
    Consortium is a form of co-operation between two or more carriers to operate in a particulartrade.
    Consular Invoice
    An invoice covering shipment of goods certified by a consular official of the destinationcountry, and used normally by customs or officials concerned with foreign exchangeavailability to ascertain the correctness of commercial invoice values.
    An item of equipment as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)for transport purposes. It must be of:
    1. a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use.
    2. specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading.
    3. fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another.
    4. so designed as to be easy to fill and empty.
    5. having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more.
      1. The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.
    Container Bolster
    A container floor without sides or end walls which does not have the ISO corner fittings and isgenerally used for Ro/Ro operations.

    Note: A bolster cannot be handled either full or empty by a container spreader without specialgear.

    Container Chassis
    A vehicle specially built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when containerand chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer.
    Container Check Digit
    The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serialnumber are correct.
    Container Depot
    Storage area for empty containers.
    Container Freight Station
    Abbreviation: CFS
    A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received from merchants for loading (stuffing) intocontainers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers anddelivered to merchants.
    Container Lease
    The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to alessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
    Container Load Plan (CLP)
    A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate their sequence of loading.
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    Container Logistics
    The controlling and positioning of containers and other equipment.
    Container Manifest
    The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units,prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.
    Container Moves
    The number of actions performed by one container crane during a certain period.
    Container Number
    Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit.(e.g. KNLU 123456-7)
    See also: Container Serial Number and Container Prefix
    Container Owner
    A party who has a container at his disposal and who is entitled to lease or sell the container.
    Container Platform
    A container floor without sides or end walls, which can be loaded by spreader directly and isgenerally, used for Lo-Lo operations.
    Container Pool
    A certain stock of containers which is jointly used by several container carriers and/or leasingcompanies.
    Container Prefix
    A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating theowner of a container.
    Container Safety Convention
    Abbreviation: CSC
    International convention for safe containers.
    Container Serial Number
    A seven digit serial number (6 plus 1 Check Digit) that forms the second part of a containeridentification number.
    Container Service Charges
    Charges to be paid by cargo interests as per tariff.
    Container Size Code
    An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height.
    See also: Size/Type ISO6346
    Container Size/Type
    Description of the size and type of a freight container or similar unit load device as specifiedin ISO6346.
    Container Stack
    Two or more containers, one placed above the other, forming a vertical column.
    See also: Stack
    Container Sublease
    Contract by which a carrier gives the use of containers to another carrier for a specifiedperiod of time and for fixed payments.
    Container Terminal
    Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a meansof transport.
    Container Type Code
    Two digits, the first of which indicates the category and the second of which indicates certainphysical characteristics or other attributes.
    See also: Container Size/Type ISO6346
    Container Yard
    Abbreviation: CY
    A facility at which FCL traffic and empty containers are received from or delivered to theMerchant by or on behalf of the Carrier.

    Note: Often this yard is used to receive goods on behalf of the merchant and pack these incontainers for FCL traffic.

    Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.
    Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.
    An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights andobligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other orboth.
    Contract Logistics
    The contracting out of all the warehousing, transport and distribution activities or a partthereof by manufacturing companies.
    Contract of Affreightment
    An agreement whereby the shipowner agrees to carry goods by water, or furnishes a vesselfor the purpose of carrying goods by water, in return for a sum of money called freight. Thereare two forms: the charter party and the contract contained in the Bill of Lading.
    Contractual Port of Loading
    A port at which an ocean vessel does not call, but which is equalised with the actual port ofcall and upon which inland haulage services and inland tariffs are based.

    Note: Generally speaking it is seen as the port to be mentioned on the B/L from which cargois accepted (e.g. delivered by the consignee for sea transport).

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    The registration and check on data and activities as well as determining supervisingprocedures and changes related to procedures.
    Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer
    Abbreviation: CIM
    International agreement, applied by 19 European railway companies, setting out conditionsfor international railway transport of goods and the liabilities of the carrier.
    Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandise par Route
    Abbreviation: CMR
    Convention for the international carriage of goods by road, setting out the conditions ofcarriage and the liabilities of the carrier.

    Note: Adherence to this set of regulations reflects a desire to standardise items such asdocumentation and rules on the carriers liability.

    Conventional Cargo
    See Break Bulk Cargo
    Convertor Dolly
    An auxiliary undercarriage assembly consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and towbar used toconvert a semi-trailer or a container chassis to a full trailer.
    Transport of goods from one place to another.
    A mechanical device in the form of a continuous belt for transporting cargo.
    Core Competence
    The combination of individual skills and use of technologies that underlay the variousproducts and or services of a business.
    Core Data
    The fundamental set of data that is needed to convey the essential minimum detail for aspecific transaction type. Ideally the detail should be all required pieces of information withno, or at least the very minimum of, options.
    Core Master Data
    The fundamental set of data that is needed to establish sufficient (but minimum) referencematerial to support the maximum use of pre-code, pre-agreed information enabling simple(minimum required content) transaction messaging.
    Core Systems
    Systems which are corporately owned and used globally. The systems are managed andcontrolled by a global team of specialists. The systems are considered as key for the generalfunctioning of the entire company.
    Corner Fittings
    Fittings located at the corners of containers providing means of supporting, stacking,handling and securing the container.
    Corner Post
    Vertical structural member at either side of an 'end frame' of a container joining a top and abottom corner fitting (and thereby forming a 'corner structure').
    Correction Message
    A substitution for what has been wrong in a prior data interchange between computers inaccordance with interchange agreements.
    Correspondent Bank
    A bank which is a depository for another bank, accepting deposits and collecting items for its bank depositor.
    Cost and Freight (...named port of destination)
    Abbreviation: CFR
    See Inco Terms
    Cost, Insurance and Freight (...named port of destination)
    Abbreviation: CIF
    See Inco Terms
    Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations
    Abbreviation: CENSA
    The main objectives of this Organisation are to promote and protect sound Shipping policiesin all sectors of shipping, to co-ordinate and present the views of its members and toexchange views with other shipowner groups.
    Country of Departure
    Country from which a certain means of transport is scheduled to depart or has departed.
    Country of Despatch
    Country from which the goods are shipped.
    Country of Origin
    Country in which the goods have been produced or manufactured, according to criteria laiddown for the purpose of application of the customs tariff, of quantitative restrictions, or of anyother measure related to trade.
    Country of Provenance
    The country from which goods or cargo are sent to the importing country.
    A machine designed for moving and lifting weight by means of a movable projecting arm or ahorizontal beam, which is able to travel over a certain distance.
    Credit Risk Insurance
    A form of insurance which protects the seller against loss due to default on the part of the buyer. See "FCIA."
    Crew Member
    Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or serviceof a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).
    Critical Path Method
    A network planning technique used for planning and controlling the activities in a project. Byshowing each of these activities and their associated times, the 'critical path' can bedetermined. The critical path is the series of successive activities which takes up most timeand is therefore decisive for the total lead time of the project.
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    Cross Trades
    Term used in P&O Nedlloyd for the services of a vessel between nations other than thenation in which the vessel is registered (UNCTAD).
    Cruise Ship
    A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group program andaccommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at oneor more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark ordisembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.
    A medium of exchange of value, defined by reference to the geographical location of theauthorities responsible for it (ISO4217).

    In general, the monetary unit involved in a transaction and represented by a name or asymbol.

    Currency Adjustment Factor
    Abbreviation: CAF
    Adjustment applied by P&O Nedlloyd lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offsetlosses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
    See Client
    Customer Pick Up
    Cargo picked up by a customer at a warehouse.
    Customer Service
    1. The way in which during a commercial relationship the wishes and demands of the(prospective) client are catered for.
    2. Supporting activities at the customer interface adding value to a product (CEN273).
    Customer Service Level
    A performance measure of customer service.

    Note: generally this is seen as the degree with which customer orders can be executed, inaccordance with the terms which are generally accepted in the market.

    The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes onimported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goodse.g. allowed quota prohibited goods.
    Customs Broker
    An authorised agent specialised in customs clearance procedures on account ofimporters/exporters.
    Customs Clearance Agent
    Customs broker or other agent of the consignee designated to perform customs clearanceservices for the consignee.
    Customs Invoice
    Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states theinvoice or other price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs forfreight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose ofdetermining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.
    Customs Value
    The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within aconsignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.
    The study of control processes in mechanical, biological, electrical and information systems.
    Cycle Stock
    That portion of stock available or planned to be available in a given period for normaldemand, excluding excess stock and safety stock.
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